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With just a few commands, it’s possible for a hacker to extract a target’s password hash and crack it without their knowledge. The goal in this article is to acquire a target’s. Then, using a Python script to convert the.
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With just a few commands, it’s possible for a hacker to extract a target’s password hash and crack it without their knowledge. The goal in this article is to acquire a target’s. Then, using a Python script to convert the. The simplest method for performing this attack requires physical access to the target MacBook, recovery mode, a USB flash drive , another MacBook , and Hashcat.
It’s also possible to leave out the USB flash drive and attacker’s MacBook by instead creating a temporary user on the target MacBook where the commands can be performed. The temporary user can then be deleted when done. For this guide, however, we will show the USB flash drive method. It includes a number of tools for reinstalling macOS, resetting account passwords, and configuring a firmware password. While this feature was designed to aid users locked out of their account and wipe the internal hard drive, it’s often abused by hackers attempting to gain unauthorized access to sensitive files.
Since Mojave This data can now only be acquired using recovery mode. Don’t Miss: There are a few macOS-specific commands in the featured Python script that make it easy to convert the. This is why another MacBook or at least another account on the target MacBook is needed. To figure out the target’s Mac password without changing it, the hash will need to be brute-forced and cracked.
MacOS does an excellent job of securing the target’s password. It’s not possible to view user passwords in plain-text. CPU-based cracking solutions like JohnTheRipper will literally take decades to crack a single hash and are therefore not effective. Hashcat with a decent GPU is highly recommended. Enter Recovery Mode To access recovery mode, first, make sure the target MacBook is fully powered off.
If the below screen appears, recovery mode was enabled successfully and readers can proceed to the next step in this tutorial. Image via Apple If the MacBook requests a password, it means the firmware is protected and configured to prevent recovery mode attacks.
Unfortunately, this means the target MacBook isn’t vulnerable to the attack shown in this article. Step 2: It even prevents root users from changing and accessing select directories. To find out if SIP needs to be disabled, open a Terminal while in recovery mode. In the menu bar at the top of the screen, select “Utilities,” then “Terminal.
If the output returns many. If the output returns “Operation not permitted,” disable SIP using the below csrutil command. Please restart the machine for the changes to take effect. After the restart prompt appears, shutdown and boot into recovery mode again.
With SIP disabled, it’s safe to proceed to the next step in this tutorial. Step 3: Wait a few seconds to allow it to auto-mount. Then, copy the desired. The target. In that case, the hard drive name may appear as “Macintosh HD” or some variation. The necessary file has been extracted, the target MacBook can be shut down, and the remainder of the tutorial requires a separate MacBook owned by the attacker. If SIP was disabled in the previous step, re-enable it before shutting down with the below command.
As long as the target’s. Open a Terminal and download the hashdump script with the following curl command. The -o argument will save the script with the “hashdump.
Crack the Hash To crack the target’s hash with Hashcat , use the below command. The macOS-specific hashing mode is enabled using the -m argument and is required for all macOS hashes extracted from version To improve Hashcat’s overall performance, set the -w or –workload-profile to 4, to maximize the cracking speed. Finally, the –potfile-path argument is used to save the cracked hash to the specified file.
It’s also possible to perform hybrid attacks where digit combinations are appended to the end of every word in the wordlist. For example, “password12” and “password This time an ” everyword ” wordlist containing , English words is used in combination with?
To append three or four digits, use “? If the password is guessed correctly, it will appear at the bottom of the terminal and Hashcat will stop. Running Hash. Dictionary and hybrid attacks can take a varying amount of time, based on a few factors. Wordlist length — Obviously, a wordlist containing billions of words may take hours, days, or even months to complete.
When performing brute-force attacks against macOS hashes, a small wordlist, specific to the target , is recommended. Hash iterations — Not all macOS hashes are created equal. Hash iterations are used as a “slowdown factor,” which essentially forces CPUs and GPUs to take significantly longer when computing a single password attempt. The number of iterations varied in my tests against Mojave and High Sierra. In some cases, the iterations were set to 27, Other times, over 45, Whether this value is set at random or specific to each version of macOS isn’t clear from my round of tests.
One thing is certain, the higher this value is, the longer Hashcat will have to work to crack a single hash. Higher iterations could be the difference between 25, and only 1, password attempts per second. To identify the number of iterations used in the extracted. The type of GPU used will drastically affect the overall performance of the attack. To prevent attacker’s from booting into a live USB, single-user mode, or recovery mode, set a firmware password.
The firmware will only prompt for an additional password at boot if someone attempts to boot the MacBook into single-user, startup manager, target disk, or recovery modes.
A firmware password alone, however, will not protect the hard drive in the event the disk is physically removed from the MacBook. For more protection, enable hard drive encryption. Enable FileVault encryption. When it completes, the MacBook will restart and require a password to unlock the computer every time the Mac starts up.
No account will be permitted to log in automatically and accessing single-user mode will also require a password. This is the best way to prevent attacks against the encrypted disk even if it’s physically removed from the laptop.
A complex passphrase over 21 characters in length is recommended to protect against attackers with dedicated brute-force hardware. And as always, leave a comment below or message me on Twitter if you have any questions.
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